THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT FORMING FACTORS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Abstract. The goal is to study the influence of the predecessor and fertilizers on the yield and quality of winter wheat grain. Methods. The studies were carried out in a long-term stationary field experiment on a gray forest medium loamy soil. Field experience, observations, accounting and generalization of research results were carried out in accordance with the methodological recommendations of B.A. Dospekhov. Statistical processing of the research results was performed using Microsoft Excel 2007 with a 95 % significance level of the results. Results. As a result of the studies, it was noted that the studied predecessors had an insignificant effect on the development of winter wheat plants in the initial phases of growth. The density of winter wheat plants during the germination period varied within the range of 314–323 psc/m2 without the use of fertilizers and 317–328 psc/m2 against the background of their application. Further growth and development of plants took place in close relationship with the studied factors. At the end of the growing season, the number of productive stems was higher on the plots, where the clover of the first year of use was used as a predecessor, both in the control (without fertilizers) and when applying mineral fertilizers. Accordingly, the yield of winter wheat grain was higher for this predecessor, averaging 35.7 c/ha for 2014–2019. Without fertilization, depending on the predecessor, 25.2–32.8 c/ha were obtained, against the background of fertilization – 34.2–39.6 c/ha of winter wheat grain. On average, over the years of research, winter wheat grain contained 10.7–14.0 % protein. Depending on the year, this indicator varied from 8.8 % to 16.8 %. At the same time, the lowest values for the protein content were obtained for the variants without the use of fertilizers. In general, the content of protein and gluten in winter wheat grain largely depended on the application of mineral fertilizers and to a small extent on the predecessor. The weight of 1000 grains, depending on these factors, changed insignificantly.

Keywords:
crop rotation, predecessor, winter wheat, mineral fertilizers
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References

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